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Modernization of Islam

Narsha Bulgakbaev
полная версияModernization of Islam





Islam is the most conservative religion in the world, which does not recognize any changes that have happened to mankind since the time of the Prophet Muhammad. War, explosion, hunger, nakedness, refugees, desertion, terrorist attack… but still a religion that does not change. In the heart of Islamic civilization, in the homeland of religion, but in Central Asia and the West, the situation is completely different. In another book about the concept of wrong faith, now liberation. The main reason for modernization is the desire of Muslim countries to reduce the gap in the level of development with developed countries. The question arises: can modernization destroy the primordial system of cultural values of Muslim states, or, on the contrary, will modernization contribute to the favorable development of these countries? In order to answer this question, it is necessary to consider the actual changes taking place in the Muslim world, the consequences of such changes, and to conclude whether they are beneficial or negative in these countries. For example, let’s look at some of the countries of the Middle East.

– It is necessary to start the process of adapting the legal thinking of the Muslim countries to the reality of modern times. To begin with, let us turn to the general concept of Islamic law. The law in these countries has remained unchanged for many centuries, but despite this, in recent years, the states of the Muslim tradition have carried out significant legislative reforms, mainly due to the expansion of democratic bases in the political system and the protection of human rights. Examples of such changes: free democratic legislative elections held in Yemen, Algeria, Jordan, Morocco, Kuwait and other countries in the last few years, the implementation of massive reforms in the field of education, as well as the inclusion of relevant articles guaranteeing the general rights of citizens into the texts of the constitutions of many countries input. For example, the Constitution of Bahrain (Article 5.2) states: «The state regulates women’s responsibilities in the family, their social responsibilities, their equality with men in economic, cultural, social, and political life, without violating the rules of Sharia.» and in the constitution of the Republic of Turkey: «The Republic of Turkey is a democratic, secular and social state based on the rule of law; based on the concept of public peace, national solidarity and justice; respect for human rights…» Such provisions of the constitutions dispel some myths about the complete inviolability of Islamic law. Today, Turkey is indeed a dynamic developing country that successfully implements both Islamic and democratic norms in its daily life, and is often held as a model for all young Arab democracies seeking their own path of development and reconciliation of the democratic system and the deep-rooted norms of Islam. But on the issue of expanding democratic bases in the political systems of the Near and Middle Eastern countries, the opinions of researchers and citizens of Muslim countries differ: some believe that many principles of democracy cannot fit into the legal system of Muslim countries, others, on the contrary, believe that Islam cannot be a basis for violating rights and corresponds to many principles of democracy believes that.

– Stop limiting innovations, recognize that there are different determining forces besides Islam that maintain the stability of society and shape the normative order and nature of culture;

– Revival of the past is a sign of backwardness, advocating a complete renewal of culture based on borrowing western cultural trends and philosophical doctrines of western thought; Advocates the synthesis of Western values and traditional heritage;

– Not to oppose innovations, to maintain peace between tradition and Islam, to unite different faiths into one Truth;

– Illiteracy is a major obstacle to progress, which plays an important role in modern times. Illiteracy is the main obstacle to social, cultural, economic and political development in Arab countries. For example, in Jordan, in 5 years, a law was passed on universal nine-year education, followed by ten years of compulsory education. Thus, we see that modernization in the field of education will gradually bring positive results.

– It is an undeniable fact that the legal status of women is very limited in the Middle and Middle Eastern countries compared to Western countries and is mainly defined according to religious norms. The level of legal status of women in the Middle East varies from country to country. For example, women’s rights are more practiced in Morocco than in Iran.

– The needs of economic development also require a rethinking of a number of traditional principles of Islam for the Muslim society. Currently, the most developed countries are moving to post-industrial development, which means that they are flourishing not because of material production and manufacturing industries, but because of the service industry. In Muslim countries, on the contrary, a raw material orientation of the economy is observed, for example, in Saudi Arabia, the material production sector accounts for about 67% of GDP, in Qatar 78% of GDP. These data show that Muslim countries need to modernize their economies, because the emphasis on raw materials makes the state dependent on the sale of raw materials, which makes it very unstable. In this regard, the governments of Muslim countries should make a number of efforts to modernize the economy. Despite some successes, the vast majority of Muslim countries cannot abandon their full focus on raw materials, and as a result, economic revival is slow.

– The process of revival also affected the world view of Muslims. Western values of freedom, which are widely spread on television screens and mass media, affect the minds of young people. Nowadays, it is possible to observe a change in the attitude of some Muslims towards the institution of marriage (promise, divorce) and disobedience to parents. Such phenomena are not so widespread in the Muslim world, but it should still be remembered that in the past such behavior was completely inappropriate in Muslim countries. Communication processes in Islamic society have changed significantly

– It is necessary to get rid of this frozen fear: they believe that the process of modernization is closely related to the imposition of foreign values, the pursuit of money and pleasure, disrespecting parents, thereby harming the faith and identity of Muslims. Others believe that modernization will bring positive changes that bring their homeland closer to «material and spiritual prosperity.»

– Undoubtedly, hyperbolization is an obstacle to the process of modernization of society, but at the same time, it is impossible to maintain stability in society and its sustainable development without taking into account the specificity of one’s own culture. It should be noted that the identity of Muslims does not depend on time and external political conditions, but is based on the principles that unite all Muslims who do not lend themselves to reconstruction.

– On the one hand, Islam appeared as a collection of beliefs that have not changed for centuries, on the other hand, modern times offer us a new system of ideas that are more intellectually sound in the eyes of modern people, which correspond to new scientific theories and ideas. These two aspects are often incompatible, if Islam is understood not only as a religion, but also as a form that manifests itself in the minds of millions of people. Most Muslims live a double life: they remain loyal to the Muslim community, but they do not adhere to all the principles that such loyalty requires. Religion and everyday life come into sharp contrast with each other.

Thus, the Muslim countries of the Middle East will have to adapt their political system in such a way that it does not lose its face and identity while keeping pace with the modern world. And it is quite possible.

Modernism is one of the characteristics of modern Islam. Various branches of Islam need to be «cleansed» of various archaic elements, excessive restrictions and unnecessary prohibitions. I am in favor of the evolution of Islam through its reforms, revision of the Qur’an and Sunnah, Sharia and fiqh guidelines. Scientific achievements are the manifestation of God’s wisdom and confirm the truth of the Qur’an. I declare that modern Islam aims to restore the institutions and norms of early Islam in the modern life of Muslims. I propose to return Islam to its «primitive purity» and cleanse it of the later filth. The ideological origins of teachings should be sought only in the Qur’an and the Sunnah.


Faith (Arabic: Iman) is the highest degree of Islam. It consists of three parts (Faith in the Creator, Faith in others, and Faith in oneself), a family of foundations that often regulate the inner qualities of a person:

– Faith in God

– Belief in angels and jinn

– Belief in the Holy Scriptures

– Faith in Prophets

– Faith in Al-misak

– Belief in fate and predestination

– Belief in Islamic eschatology

The general concept of Iman means to confirm the speech of a person, to accept what he said, to accept with all his heart, to believe clearly, with all his heart, without allowing doubts. A person who believes in the seven categories of faith is called a «mumin».


Allah has many names, each of them has its own meaning and attributes. In Islam, there are 99 names of Allah, which are called «asmaul-husna» (great names). Each of these names is associated with certain qualities and characteristics of the Most High. Different names of Allah can bring benefits and help in our life. In addition to the moral and ethical qualities associated with the names of God, each term has its own meaning in the treatment of various diseases and psychological conditions. But along with the importance of knowing the 99 names of Allah, it is also important to understand these important qualities associated with each term. Each name of Allah Ta’ala opens a way to understand the Power and His mercy that can help us in our spiritual life. Also, knowing the properties of each name helps us to understand the difficulties and problems in our life. In Islam, the 99 names of God are the common names of God, each of which has its own special meaning. Some of these names mean mercy, others justice, and still others power. The names of Allah are used by Muslims in various situations both in prayer and in everyday life. There are many practices and methods based on using the names of Allah. In the Islamic tradition, there are many esoteric healing methods that include the use of divine names for healing and spiritual enlightenment. These methods allow Muslims to solve spiritual and physical problems with the help of the names of God. Ar-Rahman – The Sustainer, Compassionate, Ar-Rahim Merciful, As-Salam – The manifestation of peace and security, Al-Mutakkabir – The Most High, The names of Allah are very important in Islam and are used in various contexts including prayer, healing and spiritual enlightenment. Allah Almighty gave these names to Muslims so that they can turn to Him in any situation and get the necessary help. Al-Ghani is one of the names of God, which means «Rich», «Infinitely rich». The qualities of this name include complete independence from all creatures and complete satisfaction of human needs. This name reminds us that God is the source of all wealth and prosperity and that we must depend on Him for all our needs. Ar-Rahman is the name of God, which means «Merciful», «Beloved». This name describes the infinite mercy of Allah towards His creatures. We should ask God for mercy and follow His example and show mercy to others as He shows mercy to us. Al-Wakil is the name of Allah, which means «protector». This name reminds us that God cares for us and protects our interests. We must seek God’s protection and help in all our affairs and activities. The names of Allah help us to understand him and his qualities in a deeper way. Names are a sign of his goodness, generosity and mercy. We can use these names in prayer, prayer and communication with god. 99 names of Allah is one of the most important knowledge for Muslims. Each name has its own unique power and each of them represents a certain attribute of Allah. Knowing these names helps us to get closer to God and understand his attributes. Most of the names presented in the list have healing properties that allow you to get what you want, protect against evil, calm the soul, and even be used for healing. Allah’s names can also be used in everyday life. We use different names of Allah in our daily life. Some of these ways are: Reciting the names in prayers and supplications will help you feel the power of each name and use these qualities in your prayers. Using names to protect us from evil – for example, the name of Allah «Al-Hafiz» (The Guardian), if recited before going to sleep, helps to protect us from evil. Using Names to Achieve Goals – Allah’s Name Al-Barr (The Good) helps others achieve goals related to charity and kindness. The use of names in healing – for example, repeating the name «Ash-Shafi» (The Healer) in prayer helps to heal physical and mental ailments. In addition, we can use the names of God to strengthen our faith and understanding of God, His attributes and wisdom. So, knowing the 99 names of Allah and using them in our daily life will help us get closer to Allah, heal us spiritually and physically, and achieve our goals in life. Each of the 99 names of God has its own special meaning and represents different attributes of the supreme power. For example, «Ar-Rahman» (The Compassionate) refers to God’s infinite mercy and love for His creatures, and «Al-Kafi» (The All-Knowing) refers to God’s omniscience and all-encompassingness. Each of the 99 names of Allah has its own miraculous properties and can be used to cure various diseases and overcome difficulties in life. For example, if a person wants to recover from something, then he can repeat the name «Shafi» (Healer) and ask God for healing. Also, each of the 99 names of God can increase and protect a person’s protective qualities. For example, repeating the name Al-Muhaimin (The Protector) helps to maintain safety and protection from evil. Some names of Allah can be used to cure various diseases and obstacles. For example, the combination of the names «Ar-Rafi’i» (The Rewarder of Good Deeds) and «At-Tawwaab» (The Accepter of the Repentant) can be repeated to cure bad diseases. You can repeat the names Al-Muhaimin (The Protector) or As-Salam (Peace) to get rid of fear and anxiety. The names Al-Kafi (All-Knowing) and Ar-Razzaq (Foretelling) help to achieve financial aid and material well-being. Any of the 99 names can be used to show respect when addressing God in prayer. For example, when asking for forgiveness of sins, you can say: «I am al-Gaffar» (meaning – the forgiver), «I am al-Tawwab» (meaning – the purifier), «I am al-Shakur» (meaning – I am thankful). You can use these names to reduce or relieve suffering. for example, «I am al-Shafi» (meaning: I am a healer), «I am Ar-Rahim» (meaning: I am merciful). Chanting these names can help you feel calm and relaxed. Using names in our daily life helps strengthen our faith and reminds us that God is present in our lives. For example, saying «I am al-Ali» (meaning – I have ascended), «I am al-Muhit» (meaning – I am around), «I am al-Hafiz» (meaning – my guardian) strengthens faith and protects against negative thoughts and actions. These are the best Affirmations that start with I… The use of names during prayer helps to achieve deep peace, peace of mind. Any of the 99 names of Allah can be repeated by slowly inhaling and exhaling, focusing on its meaning.


Such an exercise helps to raise the level of consciousness and strengthen the connection of the soul with God. Use names on the knots between the fingers. Many Muslims use knots on their beads to recite certain names of Allah throughout the day. These points help us focus on prayer and remember God’s presence in our lives. It also helps strengthen the soul’s connection with Allah in daily life. Using the 99 names of Allah brings many benefits to the life of a Muslim – protects from humiliation and suffering, strengthens faith and connection with Allah in everyday life. Remembering the meaning and purpose of each name helps you gain a deeper understanding of the divine, and using the names correctly helps you learn to observe the world around you with a new, appreciative perspective.

When we talk about Allah, we mean two aspects of His being: His essence (zat) and His attributes (sifat). No one knows the existence of Allah Ta’ala except Him. He is infinite and immeasurably great, and all creatures and their capacities are limited and imperfect compared to Him. We cannot understand His essence and every attempt fails from the beginning. Allah Almighty says about himself: «He is invisible (in this world), but He sees everything. He knows the outcome of everything, he knows everything.» (Surah Angam, verse 103). Similarly, in one of the hadiths, the Messenger of God (may God’s blessings and peace be upon him) says: «Reflect on the creatures and do not reflect on the Creator. However, there are certain attributes of the divine being known through duty. We will look at them in order. God’s essence is six. The attributes of the Divine Being are unique to Allah Ta’ala and are obligatory upon Him. Therefore, this quality cannot be found in any other being and cannot be lacking in Him. Existence (Wujud) – From the previous article, we understood that the existence of God is necessarily known through the existence of all other things. In other words, since creatures exist, the Creator must also exist. Therefore, He necessarily exists (wajib al-wujud). This applies to all periods, places and possible universes. The opposite of this attribute would be nonexistence, which is logically impossible because it implies that there is nothing else. Eternity (qidam) – After realizing that the existence of all creatures depends on Allah Ta’ala, one must also understand that Allah Ta’ala always exists. Time is His creation. Thus, His existence was «before» time. It does not limit Him and does not affect Him. If it ends, His obligation will continue unchanged. It precedes the next attribute. Infinity (Baka) – This attribute relates to the points above. There can be no time without Allah Ta’ala either before creation, during creation, or after. Similitude of creation (Muhalafatu lil-hawadis) – Everything except Allah Ta’ala came into being because of His dependence. Except for Allah Almighty, everything has a defect. The Holy and Great God is free from any defect. Thus, He is not like anything, nor is He like anything that can be imagined. In other words, it is not what you imagine it to be. Self-sufficient (Qiyam bi nafsihi) – Allah Ta’ala is not dependent on a creator, abode, time or anything else for His existence. This means that He exists by Himself (As-Somad). Uniqueness (Wahdania) – Three different meanings are required here regarding the nature and attributes of Allah Ta’ala. He is one without another, one without likeness, and also one indivisible.

Allah Ta’ala’s attributes, like His nature, are eternal and perfect. Allah Almighty has described Himself with them and they serve as an important way to develop a relationship with our Creator. Temporary and imperfect, our limited minds cannot grasp their full meaning, but they allow us to communicate with God, and when we understand them, we find love and connection. There are two ways to describe a thing: the features it has (positive attributes) and the features it doesn’t have (negative attributes). Created things may have similar attributes in a limited sense, that is, they can be described in the same terms used to describe Allah Ta’ala, but the meaning given to them is insufficient compared to what is attributed to Allah. For example, a person can be described as merciful (rahma), but this is in stark contrast to the character of Allah Ta’ala. This concept is described by Allah Ta’ala in the clearest verse about His nature: «There is nothing like Him.» (Surah Shura, verse 11). Finally, unlike other attributes such as contentment (ar-rida) and its opposite, displeasure (al-ghadab), opposites of positive attributes are impossible for Allah. Next, we will consider eight attributes: Life (Hayat) – He is alive, death is impossible for him. Allah Almighty says about himself in the Holy Qur’an: «Trust in the Immortal Living One, glorify and praise Him. It is enough for him to know the sins of his people,» he said. (Surah Furqan, verse 58). Power (Kudra) – He is the possessor of unlimited power. His almighty power is visible from the greatness of the Universe to the intricacies of the cell. The opposite is weakness, and it is impossible for Him. «Allah created every living thing from (a drop of) water. Among them (living creatures) are those that crawl on their bellies (like snakes), those that walk on two legs (like humans), and those that walk on four legs (like most animals). God creates what He wills. Indeed, Allah is capable of all things (He is Almighty). (Surah Noor, verse 45). Knowledge («Ilm) – He knows everything – what was, what is, what will be and what will not be. He knows everything down to the last detail. The creatures are proof of His infinite and perfect Knowledge. The opposite of knowledge is ignorance [not knowing] and it is impossible for Him in every way. «He holds the keys to something hidden. Only He knows about it. He knows everything that is on the land and in the sea (about all living and nonliving creatures). He knows every leaf that falls from the tree. All the grains, fresh and dry things in the darkness of the earth – all this is (written) in the Open Book (Lauh al-Mahfuz). (Surah Angam, verse 59). Will (Irada) – He willed (ma kana wa ma ya kun) what was and will be from eternity. He has what he wants and what he doesn’t want. There is no one who can oppose His will and there is no one who can delay His command. His will is absolute and he cannot be forced to do anything. God says: «He does what He wills.» (Surah Buruj, verse 16). The textual evidence for the above four qualities is given in the Holy Qur’an and Hadith. The rational argument is that if any one of these four attributes were negated, then there would be no possible thing, since that which is dependent cannot itself exist without being dependent. In other words, without Power, there would be weakness. A weak person does not create something. It was impossible to determine what kind of creature would inevitably appear. Without knowledge, possible things cannot exist, because in order to imagine something, knowledge of it is necessary. Without life, none of these qualities would exist. In other words: The existence of possible things proves that Allah Ta’ala must be alive. This proves that he must have the Knowledge of creation, the will to define it, and the power [ability] to bring it into being. Hearing (Sam’) – He hears all sounds without relying on any organs, sound waves, propagating particles and the like. Sight (Basar) – He sees all forms and colors without relying on organs, light waves and the like. «Indeed, Allah is the Hearer and the Seer.» (Surah Ghafir, verse 20). speech (kalam) – as he hears and sees, his speech does not depend on any organ, sound wave, letter, interpretation. It is through this quality that it leads to conversion. The Qur’an is the word of God, because it is the message of God. «When Moses came to the place that We had appointed (Mount Sinai), his rabbi spoke to him (in a language unlike the speech of men). (Surat al-A’raf, verse 143). Creation (taqwim) is the creation of something out of nothing. He creates all things by his will, knowledge and power. «He is the creator of the heavens and the earth. When he made up his mind, «Be!» it remains only to say. Then it will happen.» (Surat al-Baqarah, verse 117). The textual evidence of these four characteristics is found in the Holy Qur’an and the Sunnah. A reasonable argument is that if Allah Ta’ala did not possess these qualities, then He should have the opposite qualities: muteness, deafness, and blindness. All of these are faults that are impossible for Allah Ta’ala because He needs someone else to get rid of them or help Him. Being needy is Self-denial, and Self-denial is impossible with Allah Ta’ala. First of all, understanding the attributes of Allah Ta’ala is the way to know Him. Every lover tries to learn something about the object of his love. How strong is this desire when the person we love is perfect in every way? Second, the understanding of attributes affects personality adjustment. A man strives to cling to the perfections of his beloved as little as he can. thirdly, invoking Allah through nature and character brings a person closer to Him. Allah Ta’ala describes the characteristics of the inhabitants of Jahannam (hell) in Surah «Araf» and says: «Their hearts do not understand, their eyes do not see, and their ears do not hear. (In terms of lack of thinking, unwillingness to look with intent to learn, and unwillingness to listen while thinking) they are like animals – but more lost (because they have left that which brings them eternal benefit and turned to that which causes them eternal pain) They are heedless (unaware of their benefit)» (Surah Araf, verse 180). He says to the believers as a cure for the diseases of mankind: «Allah has beautiful names. So turn to Him and turn to them!» (Surah Araf, verse 180). Allah Ta’ala named himself with these beautiful names. Such is the beauty of Allah Ta’ala – none can describe Him except Him. The Messenger of God (peace and blessings of God be upon him) said in his prayer: «I cannot praise you properly, as if you were praising yourself.» (Muslim and others). The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) further explained that Allah Almighty has 99 names and whoever knows them will enter Paradise (Al-Bukhari and others).