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Theory and practical aspects of Internationa settlements. Economic cooperation

Николай Камзин
Theory and practical aspects of Internationa settlements. Economic cooperation





Within world economy the dynamic of international economic globalization enables the participants the need for mutual settlement operations, so the problem of organization of settlements is one of the main places for economically active subjects, “экономического человека”[1], in the worlds of В.С. Автономова and system related structural independence[2], than highlights relevance of the topic of research. Especially in a globalized economic space, in the function of transnational structures and scale of their export-import operation and international financial transactions.

The object of this research is international economic relations in aspects of realization mutual transnational financial commitment, international settlements. The level of economic relations has evolved to the point that the mail problem is the reduction of mutual accounts, and this is actually for the subject belonging to the same financial structure, in which, despite the outward unity is constantly being “constructive” talks on how to conduct joint activities and joint projects in the global economy in view of cross-border commercial transactions.

The object of this research is the economic substance of the payment and settlement operations in foreign-economy activity at the present stage of globalization world economic space.

The aim of the present research is to co-based study and analysis of the provisions of economics, international experience, accumulated knowledge on this sphere of social relations, to identify international payments as part of the international monetary and financial relations, to identify current trends of development and regulation of international settlements in the context of globalization.

The achievement of this goal is to solve the following problems:

– research of evolution of the global monetary system as a factor in the development of international monetary and financial relation;

– identifying the essential and form international settlements, the study order of state regulation of international payments;

– identification of risks arising from the international settlement realization, and ways to minimize them;

– research payment in foreign-economy activity at the present stage;

– define the role of banks in international transactions;

– problem and prospects of international settlements evolution in exports and imports of goods and services in context of globalization.

The theoretical and methodological bases of the research were the works of experts. It should identify the works of researcher such as George A. Akerlof, Frederic Bastiat, I. Dunning, Jeffrey A. Frankel, Ricky W. Griffin, F.A. Hayek, Richard Head, John Maynard Keynes, Jeffrey K. Liker, Alfred Marshall, Karl Heinrich Marx, K. Menger, Roger LeRoy Miller, Ludwig von Mises, Herve Moulin, Michael W. Pustay, J.A. Schumpeter, Walter Scott, W. Shakespeare, Vera C. Smith, David D. VanHoose, Bluma Zeigarnik, Д.А. Аксенов, Е.С. Батманова, Г.Н. Белоглазова, М.К. Беляев, И.А. Бланк, О.Т. Богомолов, В.Г. Брюков, Н.В. Букина, Ю.В. Бусловская, Н.А. Бутузова, Н.К. Врагова, Ф.А. Гудков, П.А. Гутынин, С.И. Долгов, Б.Ю. Дорофеев, В.Л. Ерохин, К.В. Карашев, А.П. Киреев, Г.К. Кобахидзе, Н.Д. Кондратьев, Е.В. Копалов, К.Н. Корищенко, О.Г. Королёв, И.И. Кретов, Л.Н. Красавина, В.В. Круглов, С.В. Крахмалев, М.В. Ксенофонтова, О.И. Лаврушина, Д.П. Лиговская, А.Ю. Лисицын, А.С. Мамзина, С.В. Маслов, В.А. Мещеров, А.А. Миннибаева, А.М. Михайлов, В.П. Мозолин, В.Ю. Никитина, С.В. Николюкин, М.В. Образцов, И.В. Перелетова, И.А. Подколзина, Д.В. Половинкин, В.В. Поляков, М.А. Портной, А.И. Потемкин, С. Ремезова, А.А. Рябов, А. Саркисянц, Н.Л. Симутина, С.Б. Смитиенко, Ю.А. Соколов, А. Сочнев, О.П. Строгонова, А.А. Суэтин, П.С. Томилов, И.З. Фархутдинов, Р.Г. Фахретдинов, А.В. Шамраев, Я.С. Яскевич.

Also was used legislation in the field of banking regulation and regulation of foreign trade, official statistical publications of international organization (IMF, WTO), the states, international banks and institutions.

The solutions of these problems in the research performed with a single methodological position, the basis of the research were scientific methods of research: logical, comparative, normative, comprehensive, systematic, specific theoretical approach: an ascent from the abstract to the concrete[3].

In the research were analyzed the practically important problems of the organization of mutual settlements carried out as subjects of international economic cooperation, formulated and justified the following conclusions are brought to the protection of:

– the monetary system at the international level through agreements regulated by sovereigns is the base mechanism of international payments as well as calculations and rates of foreign trade contracts are made in a particular currency, the financial unit;

– the essential of international settlements is that they are a mechanism for balancing the mutual financial obligations arising from international economic co-participants in trade and financial relations;

– a form of international settlements is a way of execution, implementation clearing house, it gradation arises because of the presence aspect of distrust and almost significant risks that require consideration in the implementation of financial obligation, especially relevant on a global scale due to the global interest;

– statements of account relationships are credit institutions, in view of their participation estimated relationship becomes a superstructure of the principal obligation of counterparties;

– justification of our expectations is a source of complacency, but because of multidirectional activity of other subject and expectations are subject to external factors and adjustments required for balancing a set of obstacles in a broad sense, registration and insurance risks;

– financial transactions become largely autonomous nature. The volume of actual turnover of goods and services is much less than the sum of transactions in global financial markets, like the banking multiplier actual turnover of goods creates a lot more turnover of finance;

– principal conductor and the subjects of international payments are the multinational corporations and banks. They concentrate in the hands of capital, scientific potential, technology, and at the same time seeking to monopolize the world's resources. Impact of their activities is extremely contradictory: generate both opportunities and challenges for the global economy;

– the most liquid assets and liabilities – payments on exports of goods and services account for an ever smaller part of the global assets and liabilities, where the crucial role played by various operations with financial instruments, as a result, periodic imbalances of international payments;

The processes of globalization of the economy attracted attention because they are not yet sufficiently studied and evaluated in the aspect of the possible consequences for the international community, individual countries with different levels of economic development and to direct participants in foreign economic activity. These processes can spin out of control and destabilize the system of international payments.

At the present stage of globalization it is evident that their accounting in order to enhance economic efficiency and to counter the negative effects of a globalizing economy. The study of processes of globalization, especially in the financial field and the field of International Settlements has a scientific and practical importance for the optimization strategy, the structure of exports, imports, these processes are as objective reality, it is important to establish benchmarks of economic development to take advantage of the inevitable closer integration into the global economy.

Need, activating the entry of subjects in the calculated ratio is an attribute of the actual reality, therefore, the calculations in international economic cooperation is an evolving dynamic process and its various forms allow the subjects depending on the circumstances, to take it their constructive participation. This should add a felicitous assertion В.П. Мозолина “в экономике субъектом … считается не человек или организация сами по себе, а лица, обладающие денежными средствами”[4].


In each national legal system is a norm similar to those contained in Part 4[5] of Art 15 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, an industry regulation establishes the legal corridor in which the subjects of legal maneuvering, at a special subject of enforcement issued instructions, and by generalizing the practice develops a unified rule detailed parties in each case and the applicable international community into action.

The practical significance of research results is the following: made in the thesis work of analysis of the estimated relationship can reveal the inner essence of the organization of settlement in international economic cooperation. It is directly related to the subjective goals of the payment and settlement operations and reputation of the party of economic relations, that is, the quality of the most valuable intangible asset subject of international business relations.

International settlements, however, like any other public relations can be considered through different prisms. For a private person, rarely enters into these relations, it can be very difficult, undesirable, and forced interaction with contractors and other persons. For institutional entity, an entrepreneur risky, but technologically necessary for business operation. For the sovereign public entities is a way of maintaining the socio-economic balance in the world[6].

Chapter 1
International settlements is a part of monetary and financial relations

1.1. The evolution of the global monetary system as a factor development of the international monetary and financial relations

International monetary system-enshrined in international agreements, a form of organization of monetary and financial relations, which operate independently or serving the international movement of goods and factors of production[7].

Monetary and financial system is a necessary step to promote international trade in goods, financial instruments and the movement of factors of production. It consists of two elements. Currency components of the system is the national currency, the terms of their mutual convertibility and circulation, exchange rate parity, exchange rates and national and international mechanisms of its regulation.

Financial elements of the system are the international financial markets and trading mechanisms to specific financial instruments – currency, securities, and loans.

Independent element of the international financial system is the international settlements, serving as the movement of goods and factors of production and financial instruments.

International financing mechanisms are key elements of macroeconomic adjustment, which is carried out in the country's open economy.

Currency is divided according to its membership to:

– the national currency – legal tender in the issuing of countries;

– foreign currency – legal tender in other countries, used in that country.

Classifications can be varied for different characters, in order to achieve the objectives of the study relevant is the following: reserve currency – the currency in which the state held its liquid international reserves used to cover the negative balance of payments.

Generally accepted in the world currency, which is accumulated by central banks in foreign exchange reserves. It serves as an investment asset, is a method of determining the exchange parity used as a tool of foreign exchange intervention, if necessary, as well as for the central bank for international settlements.

The most important characteristic is the degree of currency convertibility them – the ability of residents and non-free and unrestricted exchange and use in transactions with real financial assets.

From the standpoint of balance of payments is convertible for current transactions, capital transactions and complete, and in terms of residents – domestic and foreign.

The classification of exchange rate systems based on what is recognized as a reserve asset, that is, with the help of an asset can be settled by the imbalances in international payments. By this criterion standard monetary systems are divided into gold, gold exchange, devising. During different periods of history such assets were gold, the dollar convertible into gold at a fixed rate, any currency accepted for international payments, but above all, freely usable currencies.

The gold standard was based on the formalization of the countries of the gold content per unit of domestic currency liabilities of central banks buy and sell domestic currency in exchange for gold. Gold exchange standard based on the officially established fixed parities of currencies against the U.S. dollar, which in turn was convertible into gold at a fixed rate. The main features of the standard devising lies in the fact that countries can use any system of exchange rates of their choice – a fixed or floating, established unilaterally or through multilateral agreements. The IMF has the authority to oversee the development of exchange rates and arrangements for their establishment. Abolished the official price of gold, and eliminated its role as the official means of payment between the IMF and its members. As an additional reserve asset, special drawing rights (SDRs).

With the development of foreign economic relations and formed the world monetary system as a form of currency relations governed by the national currency laws and interstate relations. The main element of the monetary system of each country is its national currency[8]. Features of the world monetary system and principles of its construction are closely related to the structure of world economy. It is obvious that a change in its structure has evolved and the world monetary system and, consequently, are modified and improved its basic elements:

– the functional form of world money;

– terms of convertibility;

– modes of exchange rate parities and exchange rates;

– the level of foreign exchange regulation and the extent of foreign exchange restrictions;

– unification of the forms of international payments.

The development of the world monetary system is a spiral with a gap of several decades. In the domestic economy, the monetary systems have evolved from the gold coin standard to a gold bullion and gold exchange, and from him – a paper-credit treatment. Evolving global monetary system has moved to the next stage, called the Jamaican system. It was arranged by agreement of member countries by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in 1976 in Kingston, Jamaica[9], in which formed the basic principles of a new monetary system, embodied in April 1978 in the second amendment to the Articles of Agreement of the IMF. These principles, which are today, are as follows:

– the abolition of the official price of gold was legalized demonetization of gold, but, nevertheless, thanks to the real values of gold, followed by continued extraordinary role of world money and reserve assets;

– gold exchange standard was replaced by a standard SDR, which formally declared the foundation of currency parities, but in practice did not become a standard of value, the main payment and reserve funds;

– instead of a fixed exchange rate of the country officially since 1973, switched to a regime of floating exchange rates, but were able to choose a fixed or floating exchange rate;

– the IMF has the authority to supervise the development of hard currency and the establishment of agreements.

Problems of Jamaican currency system very quickly appeared in the imperfection of floating exchange rates. Moreover, the problems encountered have exacerbated the financial and currency crises. The need to coordinate national action for overcoming the crisis led global economic community to re-evaluate the role of international financial regulators to harmonize the policies of different countries in the field of monetary relations. William Shakespeare wrote: «If there be nothing new, but that which is, hath been before»[10], was a question about the effectiveness of the regulatory activities of international monetary institutions, which in conditions of crisis in the global system has considerably decreased, forcing the governments of several countries in the band to do disruption reconstruction of the whole system of currency regulation.

The IMF has not coped with the task of predicting the crisis of early shocks. Although this program was developed jointly with the World Bank, IMF, passively watching the change in the macroeconomic cycle – the transition from boom to slower growth of bank lending in the financial market and detachment from the real economy, especially in developed countries, particularly the U.S., which led to the global financial and economic crisis[11].

In economic theory, international monetary relations issues remain unchanged. Over the years, changing only the answers[12]. Like the philosophical notion of substance, dualistic in nature. The inner essence of a stable core and the outer reflection of it in our time, so all knowing “dig” to the bottom of the rod, and starts searching with the external reflection, effortlessly accessible to every listener.


To effectively solve problems of macroeconomic management, on the one hand, the actions of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation should be characterized by independence and consistency. On the other hand, measures in the monetary are a must be accompanied by adequate fiscal policies[13].

As rightly pointed out Frederic Bastiat «you cannot give money to some members of the community but by taking it from others»[14] cash equivalent because this is the existing opportunities, money is their “mirror image”, and, therefore, imperative redistribution of opportunity or the cost of moving simply changing the terms without affecting the sum.

Friedrich Hayek in his work «Denationalization of Money»[15], brought the idea of the possible effect of providing entrepreneurs the possibility of emission of money, the value of which would be stable, which gave confidence to the calculations by contractors, in the absence of inflation, but this innovation cannot be realized, because of the contradictions of nation-building basics. Through its implementation of public budgets will suffer financial losses, there will be inefficient reallocation of public goods. And if all the international community is committed to a single, centralized currency, this concept is its centerline, while the idea of a stable value is very attractive.

Tabl. 1

The main stages of the global monetary system

Compiled from: Батманова Е.С. Томилов П.С. Мировая экономика и международные экономические отношения. Екатеринбург. Издательство ГОУ-ВПО УГТУ-УПИ. 2005. С. 85.

1.2. The essence and form of international payments. Government regulation of international payments

Current international monetary and financial relations include the operations of different nature – from payments for goods and services before payment for the provision and maintenance of international loans, transfers of pensions and salaries to sales and purchases of foreign securities and property[16].

Psychological basis of any human activity is the mechanics of the human psyche, which pushes him to recognize the needs, demands satisfaction, and the person on the basis of their theoretical knowledge and life experience of exploring ways to achieve the goal. This happens through his own motivation, or on the basis of external stimulation, which occurs as a result of burdening the public property needs.

Given that the efficiency of the closed system inferior to the open, meeting the needs of the entire complex is more expedient to implement jointly, that is to give your needs the element of publicity. At least for a few subjects and on the basis of separate contributions to achieve the result by mutually beneficial structural interdependence[17]. The mechanics of achieving this result is based on the exchange in particular and multifaceted cooperation through the division of labor in general.

The ability of individual actors – the most stable element of their economic activity, in view of the commodity offered to exchange them, showing them a professional, industry specialization. Thus, already being a prerequisite to commodity exchange or barter. However, a more efficient exchange on the basis of a universal equivalent of a multiple product of each subject in the form of “money that goes with the merchant”[18], whom in modern economic relations serves the monetary unit, money. However, this issue remains unresolved even today in the field of international cooperation and solved in a specific situation or more constant in some sectors of economic cooperation.

The world and its phenomena are dynamic, if at first glance, it seems otherwise, it is necessary either to change the lens, or just look at a different angle. To maintain the momentum of the dynamics in economic relations, but mostly for her influence on a public entity governed by the calculated ratio of participants. Every sovereign in its territory shall have the power to establish its own unit of account, the currency in which there shall be canceled and liabilities. Part 1[19], Art. 75 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation shall establish circulation in the Russian monetary unit of the Russian Federation granted the exclusive right to issue ruble Russian central bank to ban the introduction of other money. External essence of money is being used for correspondence of mutual obligations, to implement the “exchange opportunities”[20], as wrote Carl Menger. The inner essence of the concentration of labor, the expression of what they are in the form of purchasing power, the “price of money”[21] as refined J.A. Schumpeter.

Performing a logical ascent from mental image to a man to institutional education, to the sovereign state, and being fixed at an intermediate stage – the world community, promote mutual problem needs economically active subjects remains valid. For “movement is life” and human activities on behalf of the individual, society and the purpose and means of subsistence, as Ludwig von Mises wrote in his book “Human Action. A Treatise on Economics”[22]. Thus, the calculations, as a catalyst for the movement are the object of attention of all participants in community activities and are worthy of a comprehensive study of the scientific community, in particular in the spectrum of the mechanics of their conduct.

In the legal field, the obligation arising from attempts to satisfy the immediate need, the subject of law contradistinguish contractor generates a chain of activities on the “domino effect” from the counterparty to the counterparty. Continuity, stability, completeness of each act of this activity is important for the international community, in view of universal interconnection and interdependence, in order to avoid a negative result from the “butterfly effect” is able to break out. Assessing the prospects for the future, it would be foolish to give much weight to things, uncertain[23].

In the material world match the actual set of circumstances under the influence of events and actions previously agreed plan indicates the proper performance of mutual obligation that generates confidence in this subject, and strengthens its intangible asset called reputation. Similarly, in physics, developed a theory that the hypothesis, the assumption by the actual evidence, a single point of coincidence of the hypothesis with the actual reality of nature, becomes a theory, and exists as long as there is no other confirmation of the hypothesis refuted.

To explain the same set of experimental data can be offered different theories. Check them with the output of these effects, which are available testing experience. The content of these consequences should be different from the content of the data used in constructing the theory. If such effects do not withdraw, then the theory is fundamentally unverifiable[24]. “Nothing comes from nowhere and does not disappear”. Describing the practice entrepreneur J.A. Schumpeter coined the term “neue Kombinationen”[25]. A person is in principle an employer only if it “carries neue Kombinationen” – it ceases to be such when they established the “case” will continue to operate within the circuit. That is, the entrepreneur provides practical innovation. If his idea is successful, the economic actors who have less marked the beginning of a creative appreciate it. According to George A. Akerlof are naturally the first entrepreneurs to become merchants who have skill to determine the quality of inputs and to certify the quality of the finished product[26]. There is a natural introduction of the idea of the inner world of business with the potential employer, and they interpret the innovation, organizing commercial “case”. Globalization of economic space allows creative individuals to gain access to information resources around the world and generate any actual ideas. Business entities to choose innovative projects and implement them in any area, from their point of view, the most commercially friendly.

Production, as is known, is the interaction of various factors[27] for the implementation of any neue Kombinationen connection is required, the combination, the coordination of individual factors, not always, or rather even not always located in the possession of a businessman, acting in their subject, whether public, public interest , which also stimulated by the global economic cooperation.

As part of the global economy lasting processes, but rather “the direction and degree of change in national economic life of the set of elements compared to the previous point”[28], called the market conditions are “business processes” global and global crises points and starting end of the previous economic cycle.

To fully participate in this “game” called the international economic cooperation, however, as to begin a local business from the subject required his personal attachment to its nature depends on its role and the remuneration for their participation. The ultimate party “game”, the consumer receives the rent as the excess of demand over the prevailing scale of the classical market, basically this is a false social value lost during the formation of the market and the market value of the accumulated savings in the form of money, an extra element to achieve the equivalent exchange[29].

A simple model implementation neue Kombinationen, at a minimum requires:

– material resources;

– administrative resources;

– financial resources;

– innovative resources.

Accordingly, the actors and their remuneration are as follows:

The owner – rent;

The worker – wage;

The capitalist – the percentage;

The entrepreneur – a profit.

“It is easier to obtain than to keep”, to maintain “stability zones” and the established order of the mechanism established by the provision of Art. 57[30] of the Constitution of the Russian Federation. Entrepreneur as a reward for his activity and the idea of business expects to receive income, the worker for his labor a guaranteed wage, the capitalist expects a capital gain, and the government imposes taxes and fees on its territory owners and users, whether natural, or man-made objects[31].

The nature of international economic cooperation is multifaceted. To describe its essence, the inner essence is to maintain world stability, permanence, the protection of existing values, the external entity is a reflection of the actual needs of stake holders to evaluate and order fulfillment.

Commitment generated by the commission of any act of the participants of this relationship remains “a feeling of incompleteness”, in the science of psychology there is a “Zeigarnik effect” whereby indeed interrupted, “unerledigter Handlunge”[32] is a strong position in the subject's memory rather than acts of completed actions. With regard to institutional and public entities believe it is undeniable accounting and provide periodic reporting on performance results.

In terms of institutional organization relationships in terms of turnover of public goods, the basis of civil rights are the property relations carried out in three areas: innovation, production, commercial, and financial[33].

So, how do at this stage of development is organized pursuant to mutual financial obligations within the framework of international economic cooperation.

Fundamental principles of this system are the subjects, which represent the private, institutional and public education sovereigns.

Individuals – are physical persons, residents in the attitude of one or more of the state, and foreign nationals (non-residents) in relation to other.

Institutional Education – an association created to carry out joint activities and to achieve certain goals in the composition, which is composed of different reasons individuals, institutional, educational, public sovereigns.

A public entity – the state, public association with all the attributes to separate sovereign territory, the presence of which, in effect, and distinguishes it from modern institutional structures already so similar to the state, but it is located in one of the jurisdictions.

Operators, agents are specialized institutional education, acting in accordance with the laws of the jurisdiction and the presence of registration. The activities carried out under a special permit, license of the Central Bank of the sovereign public, which gives them the right to perform certain banking transactions in accordance with standard operating procedures, which registered the order of their conduct.

Under Part 2[34] of Art. 75 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, as a significant public entity accounting relations, established by the Central Bank of Russia, so it is not “a natural product of banking development”[35]. Created by the will of the state and burdened with the primary function of protecting and sustaining the national currency. Detail its legal status is defined by the Federal Law “On Central Bank of Russian Federation (Bank of Russia)” № 86-FL[36].

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31Под естественными и искусственными объектами понимаются, например, недра, леса, дороги, сложившиеся общественные отношения.
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36Федеральным законом «О Центральном банке Российской Федерации (Банке России)» от 10.07.2002. № 86-ФЗ (в ред. от 21.11.2011) // Российская газета. – 2002. – № 127.
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